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Category: The Enemy

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Enemy troops of WW1 (Turkish)

Turkish Commander Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Kemal Ataturk) in trenches at Chunuk Bair with some of his soldiers  (above) 

and right >>>

in formal uniform
(photo above provided by Mustafa Senocak)

Famous orders of Kemal Ataturk at Gallipoli
This was a tough and fearless fighting leader who was one of 2 or 3 who changed the outcome of the Anzac campaign. Here are two orders that he issued.

25 April 1915: "I do not order you to attack; I order you to die. In the time which passes until we die other troops and other commanders can take our places".

Circa. 29 April 1915: "Every soldier who fights here with me must realize that he is in honour bound to not to retreat one step. Let me remind you all that if you want to rest there will be no rest for our whole nation throughout eternity. I am sure that all our comrades will agree on this and that they will show no signs of fatigue until the enemy is finally hurled into the sea."

WW1 German Troops

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  • <<< 12 assorted cigarette cards showing different scenes of military life in the German Army, WW1.
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The Enemy (1) these German soldiers are wearing the older style, ceremonial helmets (Pickelhaube) that proved too costly to manufacture and of no real worth in trench warfare.

Ersatz Model 1915 Preußen (Hanover) felt Infantry enlisted Pickelhaube. The helmet was manufactured as a Model 1915 with all Feldgrau steel fittings. Although the vast majority of Ersatz felt helmets are unmarked, this example has faint Army Korps "BA X" markings which are visible on the top of the skull interior and also on the rear visor. >>>

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Click for enlargement. The Enemy (2). These German soldiers are wearing the new model metal helmet designed for trench warfare. The Model 1916 helmet was developed in 1915 to counter the effects of countless head wounds due to der Stellungskrieg (trench warfare). The helmets were first issued for field testing in Dec 1915 to the 1st Assault Battalion. The trials were so satisfactory that an initial issue of helmets was made by Jan 1916. Unlike the Allied helmets, the German helmet used a very high quality chromium-nickel steel and afforded superb protection to the neck and ears. The helmet weighed approximately 1 Kilogram (2.2 Lb.) and was issued in six sizes 60 to 70 in 2 cm increments. There are two ventilation lugs on either side of the temple area. Click for enlargement.
Click for enlargement. The Enemy (3) A group of young German soldiers from Wurtemburg. They are members of the 248th Regiment, a new unit created after 1916. The soldier seated on the right, and the others standing behind are wearing dark brown corduroy trousers. By 1916, many private purchase items began to supplement standard government issue clothing and boots, which were becoming more difficult to supply on a regular basis. The corduroy trousers were popular with mountain climbers, and soon with soldiers in the trenches as well Click for enlargement.
Click for enlargement. The Enemy (4) This photo was taken after the German's had realized that they would NOT capture Paris. They were despondent. Note the LEATHER head-gear that in some instances replaced the Pickelhaube (the ceremonial, pointed top helmet above top), in others the cloth headgear worn by the soldiers in Enemy 3 above. It  was later replaced by the steel helmet Model 16 above in Enemy 2.
Click for enlargement. The Enemy (5) German sharpshooter (sniper) going about his work in a good quality trench. Click to enlarge. The Enemy (7) German infantry attacking over flat ground. Note the machine gun and make special note of the steel "bullet-proof" shield being used by the soldiers in centre of photo.
Click for enlargement. Click for enlargement. The Enemy (6) I know little about these soldiers. I know them to be German, WW1 vintage and they appear proud of their uniforms and equipment.

Left. A young Infantryman wearing an Ersatz felt Pickelhaube. Circa 1915

Right. A young Infantryman in the newer tunic with the newer steel helmet . Circa 1917.



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Digger History:  an unofficial history of the Australian & New Zealand Armed Forces